Chronic kidney disease, also known as CKD, is a devastating disease that affects millions of people worldwide. This number is increasing rapidly, and many CKD patients progress to end-stage renal disease, which carries a high mortality rate, without kidney replacement.
Before learning about kidney disease symptoms, it is important to know about the kidney. Kidneys play a major role in the body. Therefore, it is important to learn about its structure and function. After reading this article you can get answers to the following questions.
- What is the anatomy of the kidney?
- What are the functions of the kidney?
- What are the kidney disease symptoms when kidneys fail?
- How can we investigate renal function?
- Why do kidneys fail?
What is the Anatomy of the Kidney?
Structure and Functions of the Kidney
- let’s first look at the anatomy of the kidneys.
- It’s a pair of organs located in the back of the abdomen.
- In adults, each kidney is about 11 to 14 centimeters in length.
- The kidney is composed of an inner medulla and an outer cortex surrounded by a tough fibrous capsule.
- Each kidney contains around 2 million units called “Nephrons”.
- The microscopic filters for blood on each nephron are made of a glomerulus proximal tubule loop of the Henle distal tubule and the collecting duct.
The nephron carries out nearly all of the kidney’s functions
most of these functions’ concerns felt.
- Secretion of water and solutes
So What are the Five Major Physiological Functions of the Kidney?
- Excretion of waste products.
- Drugs maintenance of water electrolyte and acid balance.
- Production of hormones including renin to regulate blood pressure.
- Production of erythropoietin for red cell blood production.
- Conversion of an active vitamin D to active vitamin D is of importance for bone metabolism.
Kidneys Fail Symptoms / Kidney Disease Symptoms
When kidneys fail symptoms (kidney disease symptoms) are related to a disturbance in the functions
if you recall these functions.
- Accumulation of waste products
- which causes various symptoms including malaise and itching
- Fluid overload and electrolyte disturbances
- Enhance blood pressure
- Bone disease
Investigation Renal Function
How can we measure renal function and investigate renal disease?
01. Serum Creatinine, GFR, and CrCL
The serum level of creatinine which is an endogenous marker in the body is most commonly used as an index of kidney Function.
Glomerular filtration rate or GFR describes the flow rate of fields of fluid through the kidney
Clearance is the volume of blood plasma that is cleared of creatinine per unit of time.
02. Urine Tests
Urine Tests can show how efficiently body wastes are being remove
In addition, it can be use to screen for many factors including,
Imaging tests such as CT and ultrasound can be use to look for structural abnormalities and obstructions.
When there is an obstruction you will find hydronephrosis which means swelling of the kidney due to a buildup of urine
03. Renal Biopsy
A kidney biopsy is performed using a thin needle with a sharp cutting edge to obtain a small piece of the kidney cortex for microscopic examination.
Ultrasound is use to locate the biopsy site.
With a kidney biopsy, specific disease processes and their response to treatment can be determine.
Case Of Renal Failure
Renal failure can be acute and chronic.
Acute renal failure is a clinical syndrome denoted by an abrupt decline in renal function in days to a few weeks.
It can be classified into,
- Pre-renal causes – such as low blood pressure or heart failure
- Renal causes – such as gloomier nephritis where the disease is located in the kidney
- Post renal causes – Such as obstruction in the urinary tract system and from outside
Chronic Kidney Disease – CKD
Kidney disease can also be chronic
- Chronic kidney disease or CKD is defined as either kidney damage and/or GFR below 60 for more than three months
Kidney Damage or GFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m^2 for 3 months
- Five stages of CKD –
- Patients with stadium five have end-stage renal disease
- Estimated here far below fifteen and are likely to need renal replacement in the short term
- Diabetes and hypertension are major causes of CKD worldwide
- CKD is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease
- Nephron : Functional unit of the kidney
- Physiological functions: Filtration, reabsorption secretion of water and solutes
- Renal investigations : Serum, Urine, and Imaging tests and renal biopsy
- Diabetes and hypertension are major causes of CKD